Unit VIII Kinetic theory
Be able to relate temperature and energy transfer to molecular motion.
Determine the relative motion and properties of the three common states
Be able to describe characteristics of substances in each of the three
common states of matter in terms of the kinetic theory and bonding in
Be able to relate pressure to molecular motion.
Be able to calculate pressure in manometers.
Be able to calculate energy changes for the change in temperature or
phase of substances.
Terms: kinetic theory, pressure, manometer, barometer,
absolute zero, Kelvin scale, plasma, vapor, melting point,
sublimation, normal boiling point, volatile, phase diagram, triple
point, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization, hydrogen bond,
surface tension, vanderWaals forces.
Important people of history: Kelvin, vanderWaals,
Torricelli, Avogadro, Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac,
Suggested Problems: Read Chapter 11
pg 384 (1-13) pg 392 (1-8) pg 398 (1-9) pg 405 (1-10) pgs 408-412
(1, 5, 6, 8-21, 24-27, 44-47, 83)
Kinetic Theory explains why large groups of particles (molecules,
formula units, atoms) behave the way they do. It explains in a
the behavior of solids, liquids and gases. It explains why some
are liquid, some solid and still others are gases at a particular
temperature and pressure. Why do roads get cracks? Why does
in thermometers rise when the temperature goes up? What purpose
it serve to have your body sweat? These answers are not only
but explained with Kinetic Theory.
The factors that controll the phase of substances can be thought of in
a see-saw type "battle" between temperature (average kinetic energy)
pushes particles apart and pressure (forces pushing molecules together)
and vanderWaals forces (electric and gravitational forces that pull
together. The effective student must first understand these three
factors and then use that information to explain the behavior of
You Tube Video Links
The Longest Straw
Veritasium Can Crush
55 Gallon Drum Crush
Doctor Doctor Crush
NY State Test Prep Site
Watch Gas Molecules Move! - really just a simulaton
Be sure to check out the solid liquid gas
site at the bottom of the page!