### Unit VIII  Kinetic theory

Be able to relate temperature and energy transfer to molecular motion.
Determine the relative motion and properties of the three common states of matter.
Be able to describe characteristics of substances in each of the three common states of matter in terms of the kinetic theory and bonding in the substances.
Be able to relate pressure to molecular motion.
Be able to calculate pressure in manometers.
Be able to calculate energy changes for the change in temperature or phase of substances.

Terms:  kinetic theory, pressure, manometer, barometer, absolute zero, Kelvin scale, plasma,  vapor, melting point, sublimation, normal boiling point, volatile, phase diagram, triple point, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization, hydrogen bond, surface tension, vanderWaals forces.

Important people of history:  Kelvin, vanderWaals, Torricelli, Avogadro, Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac,

pg 384 (1-13) pg 392 (1-8)  pg 398 (1-9) pg 405 (1-10) pgs 408-412 (1, 5, 6, 8-21, 24-27, 44-47, 83)

Kinetic Theory explains why large groups of particles (molecules, formula units, atoms) behave the way they do.  It explains in a general way the behavior of solids, liquids and gases.  It explains why some things are liquid, some solid and still others are gases at a particular temperature and pressure.  Why do roads get cracks?  Why does the "stuff" in thermometers rise when the temperature goes up?  What purpose does it serve to have your body sweat?  These answers are not only given but explained with Kinetic Theory.

### Controlling Factors

The factors that controll the phase of substances can be thought of in a see-saw type "battle" between temperature (average kinetic energy) that pushes particles apart and pressure (forces pushing molecules together) and vanderWaals forces (electric and gravitational forces that pull particles together.  The effective student must first understand these three factors and then use that information to explain the behavior of substances.